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Terminology[ edit ] Alphabet shift ciphers are believed to have been used by Julius Caesar over 2, years ago. In other words, the letters in the alphabet Humint ad research paper shifted three in one direction to encrypt and three in the other direction to decrypt.
The first use of the term cryptograph as opposed to cryptogram dates back to the 19th century - it originated in The Gold-Buga novel by Edgar Allan Poe. A cipher or cypher is a pair of algorithms that create the encryption and the reversing decryption.
The detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a " key ". The key is a secret ideally known only to the communicantsusually a short string of characters, which is needed to decrypt the ciphertext.
Formally, a " cryptosystem " is the ordered list of elements of finite possible plaintexts, finite possible cyphertexts, finite possible keys, and the encryption and decryption algorithms which correspond to each key.
Keys are important both formally and in actual practice, as ciphers without variable keys can be trivially broken with only the knowledge of the Humint ad research paper used and are therefore useless or even counter-productive for most purposes. Historically, ciphers were often used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks.
There are two kinds of cryptosystems: In symmetric systems the same key the secret key is used to encrypt and decrypt a message. Data manipulation in symmetric systems is faster than asymmetric systems as they generally use shorter key lengths.
Asymmetric systems use a public key to encrypt a message and a private key to decrypt it. Use of asymmetric systems enhances the security of communication. However, in cryptography, code has a more specific meaning.
It means the replacement of a unit of plaintext i. Cryptanalysis is the term used for the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the key normally required to do so; i.
Some use the terms cryptography and cryptology interchangeably in English, while others including US military practice generally use cryptography to refer specifically to the use and practice of cryptographic techniques and cryptology to refer to the combined study of cryptography and cryptanalysis.
History of cryptography and cryptanalysis[ edit ] Main article: History of cryptography Before the modern era, cryptography focused on message confidentiality i.
Encryption attempted to ensure secrecy in communicationssuch as those of spiesmilitary leaders, and diplomats. Reconstructed ancient Greek scytalean early cipher device The main classical cipher types are transposition cipherswhich rearrange the order of letters in a message e.
Simple versions of either have never offered much confidentiality from enterprising opponents. An early substitution cipher was the Caesar cipherin which each letter in the plaintext was replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions further down the alphabet.
Suetonius reports that Julius Caesar used it with a shift of three to communicate with his generals. Atbash is an example of an early Hebrew cipher. The earliest known use of cryptography is some carved ciphertext on stone in Egypt ca BCEbut this may have been done for the amusement of literate observers rather than as a way of concealing information.
The Greeks of Classical times are said to have known of ciphers e. In the Kautiliyam, the cipher letter substitutions are based on phonetic relations, such as vowels becoming consonants. In the Mulavediya, the cipher alphabet consists of pairing letters and using the reciprocal ones.
After the discovery of frequency analysisperhaps by the Arab mathematician and polymath Al-Kindi also known as Alkindus in the 9th century,  nearly all such ciphers could be broken by an informed attacker.
Such classical ciphers still enjoy popularity today, though mostly as puzzles see cryptogram. For those ciphers, language letter group or n-gram frequencies may provide an attack. Essentially all ciphers remained vulnerable to cryptanalysis using the frequency analysis technique until the development of the polyalphabetic cipher, most clearly by Leon Battista Alberti around the yearthough there is some indication that it was already known to Al-Kindi.
He also invented what was probably the first automatic cipher devicea wheel which implemented a partial realization of his invention.Humint ad research paper Humint ad research paper cartoon interpretation englisch beispiel essay duden grundlagen analysis essay child centered education essay quotes environmental health and safety essay opposing same sex marriage essayDissertation englische begriffe kursi valutor a good starting sentence for a essay matthias wesseler.
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In this paper, the ZENON project is described, in which an information extraction approach is used for the (partial) content analysis of English HUMINT reports from the . A few years back, I was excited to pick up the collected Comic Book by John Kricfalusi and the other Spumco animators.
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