Abstract In four experiments we test a recall reconstruction hypothesis for working memory, according to which reading span items can be recovered or specified from multiple memory representations. Each reading span experiment involves memoranda either embedded within or unrelated to the sentence content. This manipulation affected the timing of recall, with longer pauses accompanying items that are linked to processing.
Awareness of study strategies I. Retrieval as a Memory Modifier We draw upon our memories for a variety of reasons: We may recall something in order to relay a story to a friend. We may take a test to double-check that we know important material. Or, we may recall information in order to help us remember other details or to solve a problem.
However, a much underappreciated fact is that retrieval itself can affect our memories. Testing effect Taking a test often does more than assess knowledge; tests can also provide opportunities for learning. When information is successfully retrieved from memory, its representation in memory is changed such that it becomes more recallable in the future e.
Interestingly, taking a test can modify memory for information that was not explicitly tested initially provided that the untested information is related to the tested information in certain ways; Anderson, R.
Sometimes later recall of this untested information is improved see, e. Currently, we are exploring both the benefits and the costs associated with this type of selective testing.
This section will focus on situations in which testing some information improves the later recall of untested related information Note: Recently, we have investigated the potential use of multiple-choice tests as a tool to improve the later recall of untested related information.
For example, the recall of initially untested information e. Rhea on an earlier cued-recall test; but, the later recall of this competitive information Titan can be improved if it is used as a competitive incorrect answer choice on an initial multiple-choice test e.
Bjork argue that when students do not know the answer to a multiple-choice question, they may try to retrieve information pertaining to why the other answers are incorrect in order to reject them and choose the correct answer.
It is this type of processing leads to the spontaneous recall of information pertaining to those incorrect alternatives, thus leading the multiple-choice test to serve as a learning event for both the tested and untested information.
In addition to investigating situations in which tests are used after studying some to-be-learned information, we are investigating situations in which tests are used prior to studying i.
Although pretest performance is poor because students have not been exposed to the relevant information prior to testingpretests appear to be beneficial for subsequent learning e. We believe that multiple-choice pretesting is more beneficial than is cued-recall pretesting because the multiple-choice pretest directs attention more broadly during subsequent study—not just to information pertaining to the question, but also to information pertaining to the alternatives.
Back to Table of Contents Retrieval-induced forgetting Memory cues, whether categories, positions in space, scents, or the name of a place, are often linked to many items in memory.
When forced to select from memory a single item associated to a cue e. Using the retrieval-practice paradigm, we and other researchers have demonstrated that access to those associates is reduced. Retrieval-induced forgetting, or the impaired access to non-retrieved items that share a cue with retrieved items, occurs only when those associates compete during the retrieval attempt e.
Bjork,Experiment 3. We argue for retrieval-induced forgetting as an example of goal-directed forgetting because it is thought to be the result of inhibitory processes that help facilitate the retrieval of the target by reducing access to competitors.
In this way, retrieval induced forgetting is an adaptive aspect of a functional memory system. In recent years, we have explored this phenomenon in a variety of ways.
For example, we found that items that suffer from retrieval-induced forgetting benefit more from relearning than control items Storm, E.
We have also demonstrated that retrieval success is not a necessary condition for retrieval induced forgetting to occur. Furthermore, we are currently exploring the impact of variations of the type of cue support provided for retrieval attempts FRUIT: Our efforts in this domain currently rest on testing various assumptions of theoretical accounts of retrieval induced forgetting.
Back to Table of Contents New Theory of Disuse Sometimes people cannot access information that was well learned earlier e. And students find that although they can recall information over and over again the day before a test, they cannot always recall it at the time of examination.
Finally, sometimes people cannot recall information at one point in time, but can recall it later.
In looking at these situations, it seems that our memories work in strange and unpredictable ways. The function of our memories, however, may be predictable.
The New Theory of Disuse R.
Bjork, posits that there are two indices of memory strength: Storage strength is how well learned something is; retrieval strength is how accessible or retrievable something is.
To illustrate, imagine four possible situations. If something is well learned e.
You know it well and can retrieve it readily. The address of a friend that you visited for the first time this afternoon, however, may only have high RS and low SS because the address, although practiced recently, was not well learned.This semester's class experiment examines factors that may influence people's memory.
Each of you (students in ), collect the data, and write up an APA style paper based on . Memory experiment In my research experiment, I will be finding out which gender has the better short term memory recall. I have conducted a Literature Review so that I .
memory recall. Introduction them feel or react to the material used in the experiment. Therefore the current research will be investigating weather telling participants that certain information is too hard or too easy will C (Research Methods in Psychology): Lab Report Example 2.
learning and memory strategies, a summary of research on undergraduate student metacognition with regard to these strategies, and a collection of classroom demonstrations that allows students to experience real-time the effectiveness of specific learning and memory strategies.
The recall of information from working memory: insights from behavioural and chronometric perspectives John N. Towse, Nelson Cowan, Graham J.
Hitch, and Neil J Horton John N. Towse, Department of Psychology, Lancaster University;. If you are looking for a simple experiment idea that you can try at home, here is a quick short-term memory test.
You can try this experiment on your own, but it would also be interesting to try with a small group of volunteer classmates.