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The dimensionless coefficient of friction, f, can vary from less than 0. These parameters are unnecessarily high differential pressure, thick mudcake high continuous fluid loss to formationlow-lubricity mudcake high coefficient of frictionand excessive embedded pipe length in mudcake delay of time in freeing operations.
Although hole and pipe diameters and hole angle play a role in the pipe-sticking force, they are uncontrollable variables once they are selected to meet well design objectives.
However, the shape of drill collars, such as square, or the use of drill collars with spiral grooves and external-upset tool joints can minimize the sticking force. Some of the indicators of differential-pressure-stuck pipe while drilling permeable zones or known depleted-pressure zones are an increase in torque and drag; an inability to reciprocate the drillstring and, in some cases, Problems created by science and technology outweigh its benefit rotate it; and uninterrupted drilling-fluid circulation.
Differential-pressure pipe sticking can be prevented or its occurrence mitigated if some or all of the following precautions are taken: Maintain the lowest continuous fluid loss adhering to the project economic objectives.
Maintain the lowest level of drilled solids in the mud system, or, if economical, remove all drilled solids. Use the lowest differential pressure with allowance for swab and surge pressures during tripping operations.
Select a mud system that will yield smooth mudcake low coefficient of friction. Maintain drillstring rotation at all times, if possible.
Differential-pressure-pipe-sticking problems may not be totally prevented. If sticking does occur, common field practices for freeing the stuck pipe include mud-hydrostatic-pressure reduction in the annulus, oil spotting around the stuck portion of the drillstring, and washing over the stuck pipe.
Some of the methods used to reduce the hydrostatic pressure in the annulus include reducing mud weight by dilution, reducing mud weight by gasifying with nitrogen, and placing a packer in the hole above the stuck point. Mechanical Pipe Sticking The causes of mechanical pipe sticking are inadequate removal of drilled cuttings from the annulus; borehole instabilities, such as hole caving, sloughing, or collapse; plastic shale or salt sections squeezing creeping ; and key seating.
Excessive drilled-cuttings accumulation in the annular space caused by improper cleaning of the hole can cause mechanical pipe sticking, particularly in directional-well drilling.
The settling of a large amount of suspended cuttings to the bottom when the pump is shut down or the downward sliding of a stationary-formed cuttings bed on the low side of a directional well can pack a bottomhole assembly BHAwhich causes pipe sticking.
In directional-well drilling, a stationary cuttings bed may form on the low side of the borehole see Fig. If this condition exists while tripping out, it is very likely that pipe sticking will occur. This is why it is a common field practice to circulate bottom up several times with the drill bit off bottom to flush out any cuttings bed that may be present before making a trip.
This topic is addressed in Sec. The most troublesome issue is that of drilling shale. Depending on mud composition and mud weight, shale can slough in or plastically flow inward, which causes mechanical pipe sticking.
In all formation types, the use of a mud that is too low in weight can lead to the collapse of the hole, which can cause mechanical pipe sticking.
Also, when drilling through salt that exhibits plastic behavior under overburden pressure, if mud weight is not high enough, the salt has the tendency of flowing inward, which causes mechanical pipe sticking. Indications of a potential pipe-sticking problem caused by borehole instability are a rise in circulating drillpipe pressure, an increase in torque, and, in some cases, no fluid return to surface.
Key seating is a major cause of mechanical pipe sticking. The mechanics of key seating involve wearing a small hole groove into the side of a full-gauge hole. This groove is caused by the drillstring rotation with side force acting on it. This condition is created either in doglegs or in undetected ledges near washouts.
The lateral force that tends to push the pipe against the wall, which causes mechanical erosion and thus creates a key seat, is given by Fig.
Generally, long bit runs can cause key seats; therefore, it is common practice to make wiper trips. Also, the use of stiffer BHAs tends to minimize severe dogleg occurrences. During tripping out of hole, a key-seat pipe-sticking problem is indicated when several stands of pipe have been pulled out, and then, all of a sudden, the pipe is stuck.
Freeing mechanically stuck pipe can be undertaken in a number of ways, depending on what caused the sticking. For example, if cuttings accumulation or hole sloughing is the suspected cause, then rotating and reciprocating the drillstring and increasing flow rate without exceeding the maximum allowed equivalent circulating density ECD is a possible remedy for freeing the pipe.
If hole narrowing as a result of plastic shale is the cause, then an increase in mud weight may free the pipe. If hole narrowing as a result of salt is the cause, then circulating fresh water can free the pipe. If the pipe is stuck in a key-seat area, the most likely successful solution is backing off below the key seat and going back into the hole with an opener to drill out the key section.
This will lead to a fishing operation to retrieve the fish. The decision on how long to continue attempting to free stuck pipe vs. Loss of Circulation Definition Lost circulation is defined as the uncontrolled flow of whole mud into a formation, sometimes referred to as thief zone.
In partial lost circulation, mud continues to flow to surface with some loss to the formation. Total lost circulation, however, occurs when all the mud flows into a formation with no return to surface.So then the other metals would be used on the Moon - and then you return the residue to Earth for more processing as a very concentrated source of PGMs and gold.
Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence “ Everything we love about civilization is a product of intelligence, so amplifying our human intelligence with artificial intelligence has the potential of helping civilization flourish like never before – as long as we manage to keep the technology beneficial.
This article argues that it is still premature to start widespread screening for adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in health care settings until we have answers to several important questions: 1) what are the effective interventions and responses we need to have in place to offer to those with positive ACE screening, 2) what are the potential negative outcomes and costs to screening that.
A universally accepted national ID isn’t an option; it’s a must-have for all countries and its residents. Aadhaar has been designed to make life convenient and safe for residents of India. BOOK III. BEFORE speaking of the different forms of government, let us try to fix the exact sense of the word, which has not yet been very clearly explained..
1. GOVERNMENT IN GENERAL. I WARN the reader that this chapter requires careful reading, and that I am unable to make myself clear to those who refuse to be attentive. Every free action is produced by the concurrence of two causes; one. "Problems Created By Science And Technology Outweigh Its Benefit" Essays and Research Papers Problems Created By Science And Technology Outweigh Its Benefit can see the effects of science and technology at every glace you take.