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Bruce Tuckman's classic description of the stages of group development is easy to understand and remember, but it helps to go back and look at what's behind each stage.
Bruce W Tuckman is a respected educational psychologist who first described the then four stages of group development insoon after leaving Princeton. Looking at the behaviour of small groups in a variety of environments, he recognised the distinct phases they go through, and suggested they need to experience all four stages before they achieve maximum effectiveness.
He refined and developed the model in in conjunction with Mary Ann Jensen with the addition of a fifth stage. Since then, others have attempted to adapt and extend the model - although sometimes with more of an eye on rhyme than reason.
This process can be subconscious, although an understanding of the stages can help a group reach effectiveness more quickly and less painfully. Forming Individual behaviour is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others, and avoid controversy or conflict.
Serious issues and feelings are avoided, and people focus on being busy with routines, such as team organisation, who does what, when to meet, etc. But individuals are also gathering information and impressions - about each other, and about the scope of the task and how to approach it.
This is a comfortable stage to be in, but the avoidance of conflict and threat means that not much actually gets done. Storming Individuals in the group can only remain nice to each other for so long, as important issues start to be addressed.
Some people's patience will break early, and minor confrontations will arise that are quickly dealt with or glossed over. These may relate to the work of the group itself, or to roles and responsibilities within the group.
Some will observe that it's good to be getting into the real issues, whilst others will wish to remain in the comfort and security of stage 1. Depending on the culture of the organisation and individuals, the conflict will be more or less suppressed, but it'll be there, under the surface. To deal with the conflict, individuals may feel they are winning or losing battles, and will look for structural clarity and rules to prevent the conflict persisting.
Norming As Stage 2 evolves, the "rules of engagement" for the group become established, and the scope of the group's tasks or responsibilities are clear and agreed. Having had their arguments, they now understand each other better, and can appreciate each other's skills and experience.
Individuals listen to each other, appreciate and support each other, and are prepared to change pre-conceived views: However, individuals have had to work hard to attain this stage, and may resist any pressure to change - especially from the outside - for fear that the group will break up, or revert to a storm.
Performing Not all groups reach this stage, characterised by a state of interdependence and flexibility. Everyone knows each other well enough to be able to work together, and trusts each other enough to allow independent activity.
Roles and responsibilities change according to need in an almost seamless way. Group identity, loyalty and morale are all high, and everyone is equally task-orientated and people-orientated.Tuckmans Team Building Model Management Essay.
Print Reference this. Disclaimer: Tuckman’s model emphasis that as the team develops, the leader changes leadership style. Table 5: Leadership Activities at Different Group Formation Stages.
Stage. Leadership Activity. Forming. Introduction. Bruce W. Tuckman, a psychologist and teacher devised a model for group development in From formation to completion of a task a group, according to Tuckman, goes through four stages, namely: forming, storming, norming, and performing.
Assignment Help >> Business Management. Management and Organizational Behavior. Read the attached article and watch Tuckman Video.
Answer the following questions thoroughly. Assignment paper: Reflections group study. April 21, ricky.
In term of group development, Tuckman () develop a four-stage model that describes how a team could develop into and experience and this model was later evolve into the famous five stage team development model after the following researches and studies.
Full assignment. Assignment paper: Reflections group study. April 21, ricky. In term of group development, Tuckman () develop a four-stage model that describes how a team could develop into and experience and this model was later evolve into the famous five stage team development model after the following researches and studies.
The forming–storming–norming–performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in , who said that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, face up to challenges, tackle problems, find solutions, plan work, and deliver results.